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India
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Jaswant Singh

Foreign Minister, India 1998-2002
Defence Minister, India 2001
Finance Minister, India 1996, 2002-04

     
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Indonesia
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Marzuki Darusman

Attorney General, Indonesia 1999 to 2001

     
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Jamaica
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P.J.Patterson

Prime Minister, Jamaica 1992-2006

     
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Jordan
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His Royal Highness Prince El Hassan bin Talal

Crown Prince of Jordan 1965 - 99

     
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Latvia
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Vaira Vike-Freiberga

President of Latvia, 1999 – 2007

     
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Mauritius
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Cassam Uteem

President, Mauritius 1992-2002

     
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Mexico
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Vicente Fox

President, Mexico, 2000-06

     
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New Zealand
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Mike Moore

Prime Minister of New Zealand 1990
Director General of the World Trade Organisation 1999-2002

     
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Peru
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Alvaro de Soto

UN Under-Secretary-General 1999-2007

     
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Philipines
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Fidel Ramos

President, Republic of the Philippines 1992-98

     
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Senegal
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Moustapha Niasse

Prime Minister of Senegal 1983 & 2000-01

     
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Rwanda
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Donald Kaberuka

Finance Minister, Rwanda, 1997-2005
President, African Development Bank 2005-2015

     
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South Africa
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F.W. de Klerk

President, Republic of South Africa 1989-94

     
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Spain
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Javier Solana

Secretary General, Council of the European Union 1999-2009
Secretary General, NATO 1995-1999
Foreign Minister, Spain 1992-1995

     
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Sri Lanka
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Chandrika Kumaratunga

President, Sri Lanka 1994-2005

     
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Malta
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Lawrence Gonzi

Prime Minister, Malta 2004-13
Minister of Finance, 2004-08
Minister of Social Policy, 1998-2004

     
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Algeria
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Lakhdar Brahimi

Foreign Minister, Algeria 1991-93
UN Special Adviser to the Secretary-General 2004-05

     
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Armenia
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Armen Sarkissian

Prime Minister, Armenia 1996-97

     
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Australia
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Kevin Rudd

Prime Minister of Australia, 2007-2010 and 2013
Foreign Minister,  2010-2012

Gareth Evans

Foreign Minister, Australia 1988-96
President and CEO of the International Crisis Group 2000-09

   
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Austria
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Wolfgang Schüssel

Austria, Federal Chancellor 2000 – 2007
Foreign Minister 1995 - 2000

     
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France
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Herve Latsous

Herve Latsous

United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations 2011 - 2017

     
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Canada
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Joe Clark

Prime Minister, Canada 1979-80
Secretary of State for External Affairs 1984-1991

Louise Fréchette

UN Deputy Secretary-General, 1998 – 2006

   
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Lebanon
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Ghassan Salamé

UN Special Advisor to Secretary-General, 2003-06
Lebanese Minister of Culture, 2000-03

     
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Sweden
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Carl Bildt

Prime Minister, Sweden 1991-94
Foreign Minister 2006-14
UN Special Envoy to the Balkans 1999-2001

     
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Switzerland
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Micheline Calmy-Rey

President of the Swiss Confederation 2007 and 2011

Pascal Couchepin

President, Swiss Confederation 2003 & 2008

Kaspar Villiger

President, Swiss Confederation 1995 & 2002

 
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Tanzania
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Salim Salim

Prime Minister of Tanzania, 1984 – 1985
Secretary-General of the OAU, 1989 – 2001

     
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Timor-Leste
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José Ramos-Horta

President, Timor-Leste 2007-12

Prime Minister 2006-07

     
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Turkey
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Hikmet Çetin

Deputy Prime Minister, Turkey, 1978-79 and 1995
Foreign Minister, 1991-94

     
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USA
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Chester A. Crocker

US Assistant Secretary for African Affairs 1981-89

Tom Daschle

US Senator 1987-2005
Member of the US House of Representatives 1979-1987
Majority Leader of the US Senate

Donald F. McHenry

US Ambassador to the UN 1979-81

Thomas R. Pickering

US Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs 1997-2000
US Ambassador to the UN 1989-92

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United Kingdom
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Catherine Ashton

Catherine Ashton

High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy 2009-14
Vice President of the European Commission 2009-14

Lynda Chalker

Minister of Overseas Development, UK 1989-97

   
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Uruguay
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Enrique Iglesias

Foreign Minister, Uruguay, 1985-1988
President of the Inter-American Development Bank 1988-2005

     
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Chile
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Juan Gabriel Valdés

Minister for Foreign Affairs, Chile, 1999
Chilean Ambassador to the UN, 2000-03

     
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Côte d'Ivoire
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Amara Essy

Foreign Minister, Côte d'Ivoire 1990-2000
Secretary General, OAU 2001
Chairman, AU Commission 2002-3

     
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Egypt
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Mohamed ElBaradei

Director General,  International Atomic Energy Agency 1997-2009
Interim Vice President, Egypt 2013

     
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Finland
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Elisabeth Rehn

UN Under-Secretary-General, SRSG in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1998-99
UN Special Rapporteur for Human Rights 1995-97
Finnish Minister of Defence 1990-95 and Equality Affairs 1991-95

     
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Guatemala
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Eduardo Stein

Vice President, Guatemala, 2004-08
Foreign Minister 1996-2000

     
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A post-Brexit Europe is starting to take shape


The UK’s departure creates new chances for Madrid, as well as Paris and Berlin

By CARL BILDT

Published: Financial Times, 20 June 2017

How will power shift in Europe as the reality of Brexit starts to sink in?

Much depends on how Brexit is handled. Overall, the EU capitals want a constructive partnership with a constructive UK in the future. But if the confrontational rhetoric of “no deal is better than a bad deal” actually drives the process towards a real breakdown — which is by no means excluded — all bets are off.

Provided more time is given to the process, and more thought too, this should be avoidable. And then the question must be: how the partnership will work out on the multitude of issues the future is going to throw at the European nations.

The essential and unavoidable fact is that Britain will not be in the room when EU summits are called on all the different issues that are certain to emerge in these increasingly uncertain times. It could be on a major financial crisis, a new Russian aggression, an accelerated Middle East meltdown or on something completely out of the blue. We have been there before.

If there is a smooth and soft Brexit, it should be possible to set up the mechanisms of a “special partnership” tighter than the one Britain claims to enjoy with the US. But if there is a brutal Brexit, the political scars will last for years.

For all its public ambivalence, there is little doubt that on the inside Britain has been very powerful in shaping the evolution of the EU. It has been in the vanguard of the single market, free trade, competitiveness and enlargement drives during the past few decades. It has given weight to the efforts to build a common EU foreign policy.

Many have seen the UK as a necessary counterweight to other countries keen on a more closed approach, both political and economic.

Nervousness has mounted in numerous capitals over how this will develop, and much depends on how a reinvigorated Paris-Berlin relationship will evolve during the coming years.

But while Paris is talking about reforms in Brussels, Berlin is anxiously awaiting reforms in Paris. For Europe to be “En Marche”, France under Emmanuel Macron, its new president, must show that its words can be translated into deeds.

For the time being there is no doubt that Berlin is even more dominant within the EU. It is not only that Angela Merkel is the true adult around the table, but also the fact that German nationals are to be found in key positions in the EU nearly everywhere. As long as Ms Merkel is there, the politics of Europe revolves around the German chancellery rather than around the European Commission.

But Berlin is aware of the risk of overplaying its hand. The lessons of history are a constant influence on every German politician. And this is of critical importance to other EU nations — there is tacit acceptance in other EU capitals of a situation in which Paris might propose, but in the end it is Berlin that decides.

Over time this might change. If Paris really moves forward on structural economic reforms, while Germany stagnates in complicated coalition politics after the election, the magnetism of the Élysée will grow.

How Paris will play its role on the wider EU scene remains to be seen. During the final years of the François Hollande presidency there have been a series of “EU South” summit gatherings, reflecting French efforts to take a leadership role in these regions. And the Macron aura might well, at least initially, make Madrid and Rome more receptive to accelerated attempts along these lines.

Over time, I would expect the appetite of Madrid for a larger EU role on its own to grow, based on its successful economic transformation.

While Paris might well be ready to sidestep and marginalise the problematic countries of central Europe, and favour a “core Europe”, Germany is acutely aware of being situated in the very heart of the EU, having more neighbouring countries than anyone else, and bound to continue to favour a more inclusive approach. Bonn was close to the border with France, but Berlin is even closer to the border with Poland.

It remains to be seen how the countries of the north will be able to work together. On the issue of EU defence co-operation Finland is distinctly forward-leaning, Sweden split and hesitant, Denmark out of the picture and the Baltic countries focused on Nato. There is certainly scope for improvement.

The post-Brexit EU will certainly be different. Let us hope it preserves the policy gains that Britain’s membership provided.